Careful analysis has shown that drone raising effort tracks worker production
This season demography from Scotland illustrates
the same protocol from Davis is a bit more difficult to read, but illustrates our brief spring and long dry summer
Note both use "brood area" rather than unit count, and as drone brood is larger, the unit count is more heavily skewed, and drone cells
are capped brood for a day or two longer than workers . (MB caught a mistake).
Ratio are: 2.60 drone cells per cm2 and 4.29 worker cells per cm2
Most interestingly, because Drones are much heavier than workers -- 0.2358 grams/individual for drones vs. 0.0519 grams/individual for workers -- the total energetic investment in the workers vs. drones approaches the 1:1 "Fisher" sex ratio. This sex ratio is the subject of massive academic research and modeling. Queens (whose evolutionary imperative is to continue their genotype) do best by investing in drones and workers about evenly in terms of biomass and at 17-22% in terms of individual count. The workers add fitness and the possibility of swarm division and the drones contribute the queen's genes to any available virgin.