Here is a new report from Europe made by DEFRA UK Honeybee Disease in Europe - The Food and Environment ...www.fera.defra.gov.uk/.../syngentaBeeDiseaseRepo
Bee losses are explained country by country. Figures are far from 35% losses of USA.
In European countries 15-20% is quite usual.
Italy and Neatherlands have highest averages 30%.Honeybee Disease in Europe
Report to Syngenta Ltd
This report aims to provide an overview on the diseases of honeybees and their distribution in Europe. There have been a number of reviews of honeybee pathology, therefore this review aims to highlight the key areas impacting on bee health in Europe. It will also not deal specifically with CCD as this is not widespread currently and is well reviewed.
The major pests/diseases are Varroa and viruses, acarine (Acarapis woodi), American foulbrood, European foulbrood, Nosema, together with unspecified multiple infections.
The 2009 Bee Mortality and Surveillance in Europe report to EFSA identified the paucity of bee disease data for Europe and recommended the establishment of the current EU Reference Laboratory for Honeybee Health which is co-ordinating its first pilot survey from September 2012. Until these data become available there is no comprehensive dataset available to understand the distribution of bee diseases in Europe.
The major bacterial diseases of honeybees affecting developing brood are the foulbroods, European foulbrood (EFB) caused by Melissococcus plutonius and American foulbrood (AFB) caused by Paenibacillus larvae. Both cause the death of infected brood but AFB is far more virulent and will ultimately result in colony death if uncontrolled. EFB is a far more sporadic disease from which generally only weak colony succumbs.
Acarine is caused by the tracheal mite Acarapis woodi which infests the trachea of adult honeybees. The mite has been identified or is present on all major continents with the exception of Australia. It feeds on the bee hemolymph and has also been identified as a vector of viruses. Infestation of the adult bees with significant numbers of tracheal mites results in high level of bee mortality and poor overwinter survival.
There are two forms of the microsporidian (fungus) Nosema associated with clinical signs of disease in honeybees: Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae. Nosema spp. invade the digestive cells lining the mid-gut of the bee, there they multiply rapidly and within a few days (3-7 days) the cells are packed with spores, the resting stage of the parasite. When the host cell ruptures, it sheds the spores into the gut where they accumulate in masses, to be later excreted by the bees. If spores from the excreta are picked up and swallowed by another bee, they can germinate and once more become active, starting another round of infection and multiplication.