Honey bees actually favor cavities with entrances at the bottom. This has been shown in studies for years. They actually will choose a bottom entrance over a top entrance in swarm traps if given the chance. This is for reasons of rain, air flow, and the loss of heat.
Years ago, beekeepers told the standard story that the bees only heats the cluster and not the hive. This totally ignored the benefits of trapped heat in the upper half of the hive, especially in late winter when bees start brood. They move upwards throughout the first half of winter and they start rearing brood in this heated upper half in later winter. Heat imagery pictures clearly show that the top half of the brood chamber is much warmer than the bottom half, and brood rearing is much easier for the bees in colder climates when the heat is trapped in the top half of the hive.
Then we moved on to top entrances for moisture control. But if the average beekeeper would stop feeding syrup in cold weather by using other feed options such as fondant or sugar , the bees would have a minimal problem dealing with moisture, just like in feral colonies.
Then it is on to skunks. This was dealt with years ago by having hives on stands or other easily placed items like carpet strips. The idea that one would change the hive's air flow and heat dynamics due to easily handled skunk problems, is funny to me.
Over the years, I have heard other justifications for top entrances to even include mouse problems. Like if you can't keep mice out of a bottom entrance, like your going to keep them out of a top entrance. What a joke. Mice do climb really well.
But beekeepers have always gone this route. From the days of beekeepers placing in swarm frames, to Imrie shims, beekeepers are notorious for coming up with "special fixes" to problems that are corrected in easier manners, and usually ones that were solved years ago.
But we need book filler. Every person coming out with a new book needs something different to write about, otherwise their book would be the same as the last guy who wrote one.
Yes, I add a few extra entrances when all the supers are on, for increase air flow, etc. When we build the colony up much larger than normal by adding supers and so on, some beekeeping management might be needed. But when the supers come off, and the bees are in their winter configuration, a bottom entrance is all that is needed. Bees will seal off all cracks, and trap as much heat as they see fit.
But I see the next justification for top entrances by this previous post....
>>>>I personally don't see any issue with running both upper and lower entrances. Upper entrance is a notch in the innercover with the telescopic top pushed forward. I've noticed that most of the returning foragers return to the upper entrance and head straight for the supers, instead of having to work their way up thought the bottom. Most of the outgoing traffic leaves through the lower entrance. I've had MUCH less congestion at the front of the hives this year with this set up. I run 2 entrances all year round. I reduce the lower entrance to 1 inch in the winter.>>>>
I have never heard this before. Most bees all leaving on the bottom, and then returning via the top entrance. And repeating this throughout the day and thus keeping congestion at the entrance lower. Very interesting. I am sure someone will want to research into this as the bees have now been shown to be organized in the hive that a "one way street" approach has been found. This is all new to me.