Pesticide toxicity to honeybees: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pesticide_toxicity_to_bees
I’m usually too busy with other things in the spring to find time to spray my apple trees with anything. As a result my apples are heavily infested with codling moths. I’m not a big eater of apples, so I live with it.
I don’t use insecticides in general (except dormant oils and soapy water spray), but if I had to deal with the codling moth, I would try BT (Bacillus thuringiensis) a natural soil dwelling bacterium. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacillus_thuringiensis
BT is effective at killing early instars of Lepidopteran (i.e. moths) and is thought to be harmless to everything else, including humans. This is what our “genetically modified” foods are based on, adding genes that generate BT toxins in the plants to kill moth caterpillars. Of course there is a lot of debate about the safety of GM foods with the BT genes in them, but that is another issue.
Relative to the other way more toxic alternatives out there, my choice is to try BT for severe codling moth problems if you want to eat the apples. Another more labor intensive option would be to put a bag over your apples to keep the moths out!