O.K. I'm confused, I thought Nosema was bacterial.
Lol, I thought it was a virus. It's microsporidia, which is helpful to know. The spores survive freezing, so its a fairly robust. I've finally finished a quick read of the research paper. Interesting that two queens coexisted in a collapsed hive, ostensibly to increase population more quickly. But then it collapsed again.
Also, a control group from Northwestern Montana was used, where they have never had CCD and hives are not migratory. Anyone know anything about these hives? Walter T. Kelley newletter also references beekeepers with 100% survival (not from Montana).