But does it make a difference to condensation if you keep the hives under a cover, like a carport or a shed, over winter? Going back to the car analogy, you don't get frost in the first place that melts in higher temperatures,
The beehive itself must made so that it stands rain.
The moisture comes from bees when they use the food.
We have 15 kg sugar in the food and 3 kg water in the food = 18 kg. (water 17%)
We have photosyntesis formula 6 CO2 + 6 H2O = sugar and molecular weight 372
We have cell respiration formula C6 H12 O6 + 6 O2 = molecular weight 372
Sugar + oxygen --> water + carbon diokside.
30% of sugar will be returned to water. From 15 kg sugar we get 4,5 kg water.
We had allready 3 kg water in food solution , so we have together 7,5 kg water source in the food 18 kg store.
So winter food has about 40% water potential which is released via respiration.
If the hive has 25 kg food stores, it generates 10 litre water via respiration.
That is the water which you arrange out from the hive during half a year.