1. When should I put in the entrance reducer and mouse guard?
Mouse guards about a month ago. As usual, I'm running a little late and had to evict a couple of mice last weekend when I was making the rounds. Luckily they can't get thru my slatted racks, so no damage to the comb. I have started reducing my entrance 2 weeks ago, but I'm probably 10-20 degrees colder than you.
2. Should I place the hive on something much higher so that the snowfall doesn't reach the lowest super?
Actually, the snow provides insulation and shielding from the wind. Just keep the entrance clean and they will be fine.
3. Should I move the hive from the middle of the lawn to up against the shed so the wind doesn't blow the hive over?
You could, as long as they get sun. BUT, short moves are tough on the bees to re-orientate, so you would be better to just build a simple wind block.
4. Should I build a square wooden box around them to shield them from the wind?
You only need to build it on the prevailing wind side, actually a 'V' shape pointing into the wind works good. Still gives them plenty of air circulation.
5. Should I wrap the hive in something more than tar paper, such as quilted plastic with ventilation holes?
If you are going to wrap, tar paper is fine, it allows heat transfer from the sun on nice days.
6. When would I use pollen bee food? Now? During the winter? Where do I put in in the hive?
Wait until early spring when they start to raising brood. Put it right on the top bars.
7. What's the best feeder to use so that the bees are not disturbed in the cool weather?
I prefer candy or dry sugarhttp://robo.bushkillfarms.com/beekeeping/emergency-feeding/
I've been using a division board feeder thus far.
I was looking at a poly top feeder and a plastic top feeder which seem pretty similar and one only needs to lift the lid to refill.
I was also looking at the entrance feeders but those seem more fiddly because you have to remove them from the hive, block the entrance, take the tubs off, refill them and replace them back in the hive.
Then I considered the two gallon feeder pail but was concerned about the feeder plug getting stuck. Does anyone use these? How often do you change the plugs or clean them in the winter? I get that you place these pails upside down on the inner Cover with screen plug over the inner cover hole, but where do you put the top telescoping cover? Or don't you put the cover back on?
I would not recommend feeding syrup during the winter, introducing too much moisture in the hive can lead to dysentery. But when you do feed syrup, my preferred method is an inverted jar/can. It is the only method (for syrup) that allows the bees to feed without breaking cluster.http://robo.bushkillfarms.com/beekeeping/feeder-compare/