Spain isn't Europe?
Spain is not an islamic army, I said NAME THE ARMY, not name the county that you already named.
hairsplitting? - I can honestly tell you it wasn't the 442nd infantry, but name the specific army? I couldn't even tell you the name of their general. But they conquered Spain. by extrapolation I am assuming that they used an army of some sort to accomplish this conquest.
In addition I will assume that since no 'Islamic' army gained a foothold in Europe for they rest of the crusades that their tactics and equipment were not sufficient to get them back into Europe.
history: the foundation of christianity is rebellion of sorts - Jesus was executed as a traitor to Rome and his followers persecuted (of course until they gained their own power.) today (legally) there is no official religion in "christian" societies - America being chief among them. America has no single declared church.
Muhammered ran to the government right away to tell the news of his new sca- visions; and it is a DIRECT link to the fact that today Islamic Mullahs have official power within the government in Islamic nations and there is no pretense of separation of church/state - none. Even if each Islamic Country tolerates various forms of Islam (barely) they often have -officially- no tolerance of non islamic religions.