I have really wondered how many bring they bees towars winter.
Here we are discussed a lot, and more lot with erroneous knowledge.
Question is, why erronous knowledge is so pretty. Many mix world saving goals to their management, but untill these days I have not found connection between beekeeping and globe saving. I have worked in area of globe saving 14 years, but no connection with bees.
You must really accustome with professional advices in wintering. You have splendid internet sites which are written by Universities and by other reliable quarter. The site on the map is important. Even 500 km dintance may be important difference what is practical.
I think that you get good information from Canada. They have harsh winters and they professional skills are high. http://entomology.unl.edu/beekpg/tidings/btid2001/btdapr01.htm
Look at that:
"Winter Entrances: In addition to a reduced bottom entrance, colonies need an entrance near the top of the hive during winter
. Bees consume honey to generate heat. The by products that result from burning honey (or any other fuel) are carbon dioxide gas and water vapor
. Carbon dioxide is heavier than air and it settles to the bottom of the hive and flows out the bottom entrance. Water vapor rises from the cluster. In hives that do not have a top entrance, the water vapor hits the cool surface of the lid, condenses and drips on the cluster. Top entrances allow water vapor to escape.
In addition, bottom entrances can be shut off with dead bees. Top entrances allow bees to take cleansing flights when bottom entrances are blocked. Colonies typically lose 2/3 of their population during winter
. In mild winters, dead bees are removed from the colony. In severe winters, they accumulate on the bottom board and can block the entrance."
I can sign every sentence.
I havent seen this book but it promises management on professional level.BOOK: Beekeeping in Western Canadahttp://www1.agric.gov.ab.ca/