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« Last post by akhardys on February 20, 2017, 12:25:18 PM »
Welcome  :happy:.

Feeding dry sugar vs. syrup is all about the moisture.  During the winter you want little to no added moisture in the hive from the feed.  Therefore you use dry sugar in the form of fondant or sugar brick or the mountain camp method.  The bees can't deal with the added moisture during the winter and it will condense in the hive(not good).  During the spring/summer/fall syrup is used because it mimics the nectar that they normally bring in and they can deal with any leftover moisture that may be in the hive.  If you fed them dry sugar during the summer they would have to still bring in water to mix with it to use it.

Makes sense.  Thank you.
GREETINGS/TELL US ABOUT YOURSELF / Re: Greetings from Switzerland
« Last post by bwallace23350 on February 20, 2017, 11:51:48 AM »
Glad to have you. Switzerland is a wonder place. I have spent some time there. What types of bees do yall have there?
« Last post by bwallace23350 on February 20, 2017, 11:50:56 AM »
I have gave up on the actual natural fence idea and instead am just going to plant random herbs, lavender plants, butterfly bushes, lantana, and other such plants sporadically along the fence row.
Looks like a professor from Michigan State University who belongs to the same Bee Club I belong to is going. That will be great for the technical support. Side note, I have friends who raise Bee's and chickens at the same time. I don't know why they get into chickens....

I'm reading up on what other local townships are doing. Thanks for the advise. Keep them coming!
The fear is hte biggest hurdle I have faced in getting people to even think about going to my hives much less keeping some near them. Everyone seem interested but no one wants to actually take a peak. I have had two people take me up on my offer so far out of near 20 something offers.
GENERAL BEEKEEPING - MAIN POSTING FORUM. / Two observations after feeding today
« Last post by bwallace23350 on February 20, 2017, 11:31:37 AM »
I fed my bees today. I noticed that there was a lot of bees flying but I could notice no pollen. Does that mean that they are on a good nectar source now? Also I started to look at my bees and noticed that they are of a darker colour than I remember and look like the feral bees in my area. Tan and Black instead of Yellow and Black. Thoughts?
That's not going to do much to fight the fear factor, which is often the greatest hurdle to jump.  Be prepared with your expert knowledge of bees and their habits to fight the fear.
Pointing to the success of similar communities with bee-friendly rules can be helpful, and that there is a trend in this direction.
I would go in armed with the facts about how bees benefit the environment and how not allowing them in the residential area has a negative impact on everything.
GENERAL BEEKEEPING - MAIN POSTING FORUM. / There's a new bee ordinance in my area
« Last post by FlexMedia.tv on February 20, 2017, 10:30:39 AM »
In the township where I live in Michigan you can only have hives in the rual areas and not residential areas. I live in the residential area but I keep my hives an hour away where they are allowed for that reason. Tonight there is a township meeting to look into a new proposal to allow Bee's and chickens, on separate proposals. This was motivated by a beekeeper in the residential area who got caught with 4,5 hives and they made him move them because his neighbor complained she was allergic.

What do I say at this meeting? I want to say allow the bees without restrictions (area, number of hives, etc) because it's too hard to regulate anyway. Anybody got any ammo? Doesn't look like many people are going to the meeting.


Honey bees provide 'pollination services' worth billions of dollars to US agriculture. Understanding honey bee populations requires understanding their origins in the Middle East and Africa. New work from UC Davis and UC Berkeley clears up some of the confusion around honey bee origins. Image: Honey bees collecting pollen.
Credit: Kathy Keatley Garvey
Where do honey bees come from? A new study from researchers at the University of California, Davis and UC Berkeley clears some of the fog around honey bee origins. The work could be useful in breeding bees resistant to disease or pesticides.

UC Davis postdoctoral researcher Julie Cridland is working with Santiago Ramirez, assistant professor of evolution and ecology at UC Davis, and Neil Tsutsui, professor of environmental science, policy and management at UC Berkeley, to understand the population structure of honey bees (Apis mellifera) in California. Pollination by honey bees is essential to major California crops, such as almonds. Across the U.S., the value of "pollination services" from bees has been estimated as high as $14 billion.

"We're trying to understand how California honey bee populations have changed over time, which of course has implications for agriculture," Ramirez said.

To understand California bees, the researchers realized that they first needed to better understand honey bee populations in their native range in the Old World.

"We kind of fell into this project a little bit by accident," Cridland said. "Initially we were looking at the data as a preliminary to other analyses, and we noticed some patterns that weren't previously in the literature."

The new study combines two large existing databases to provide the most comprehensive sampling yet of honey bees in Africa, the Middle East and Europe.

Unrelated Bee Lineages in Close Proximity

Previously, researchers had assumed an origin for honey bees in north-east Africa or the Middle East. But the situation turns out to be more complicated than that, Cridland said.

"You might think that bees that are geographically close are also genetically related, but we found a number of divergent lineages across north-east Africa and the Middle East," she said.

There are two major lineages of honey bees in Europe - C, "Central European," including Italy and Austria and M, including Western European populations from Spain to Norway - which give rise to most of the honey bees used in apiculture worldwide. But although C and M lineage bees exist side by side in Europe and can easily hybridize, they are genetically distinct and arrived in different parts of the world at different times.

M lineage bees were the first to be brought to north America, in 1622. The more docile C lineage bees came later, and today many California bees are from the C lineage, but there is still a huge amount of genetic diversity, Ramirez said.

"You can't understand the relationships among bee populations in California without understanding the populations they come from," Cridland said.

In the Middle East, the O lineage hails from Turkey and Jordan, and Y from Saudia Arabia and Yemen. The main African lineage is designated A.

At this point, the researchers cannot identify a single point of origin for honey bees, but the new work does clear up some confusion from earlier studies, they said. In some cases, diverged lineages that happen to be close to each other have mixed again. Previous, more limited studies have sampled those secondarily mixed populations, giving confusing results.

"We're not making any strong claim about knowing the precise origin," Cridland said. "What we're trying to do is talk about a scientific problem, disentangling these relationships between lineages, the genetic relationships from the geography."
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